The Theoretical Framework collects background information, past research, and theoretical considerations that serve as the foundation for research, analysis, hypothesis, or experiment.

The academic, contextual, or legal backing of the concepts used to tackle the topic in the research is known as the theoretical framework, also known as the reference framework.

This collection of data also hopes to illustrate the research project’s unique contribution to its relevant field of expertise.

The theoretical framework also specifies the field to which the selected object of research belongs and essential ideas, and the phenomena to be explored or examined.

Its consequence lies in the fact that it allows for justifying, demonstrating, supporting, and interpreting the hypotheses and results of an investigation in an orderly and coherent manner. In addition, the theoretical framework helps us reliably formulate the conclusions of a project or, failing that, rethink the questions in greater depth.

Structure of the Theoretical Framework

The parts of a theoretical framework may vary depending on the type of investigation, but, in general terms, it should be structured in the following primary sections.


It is the part that mentions the problem and all the previous studies that have been done about it. In this way, the approaches above can better understood, and a guide establish regarding the information and procedures available to carry out the investigation.

In turn, the background includes additional information that allows a better understanding of the problem in the present, such as geographical, cultural, economic, demographic, historical, political, and social contexts, among others relevant to the purposes of the investigation.

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Theoretical bases

As its name indicate, it refers to all the theory that supports the topic or problem raised. If it were a matter for which at least one previous idea does not yet exist, then this is the part in which a theory of your own will present.

The theoretical bases also describe vital concepts about the problem to investigat so that it is possible to elucidate the subject matter better.

Legal Basis

It is essential to clarify all the legal parameters on which an examination will carry out in some cases. This must describe in the legal bases that, in turn, must  within the theoretical framework.

In the same way, on the legal bases, all the antecedents of this nature that exist on the subject to  investigated must explain, if applicable.


All the problem variables must express in measurable factors in the theoretical framework. In this way, confusion or misinterpretation of concepts could ambiguously avoid.

How to make a Theoretical Framework

There is no single formula for making a theoretical framework. However, some guidelines could taken account when scripting:

  1. Review the bibliography: the bibliography must thoroughly read beforehand to pick just those relevant items to the inquiry.
  2. Determine the legal basis: the legal bases (if any) must list in chronological sequence, with the oldest first.
  3. Organize the concepts: The concepts must group rationally and hierarchically. It’s a feature that will give the investigation more formality while also making it easier to comprehend.
  4. Avoid filler material and focus just on data that adds to knowledge generation.
  5. Write clearly: Your writing should be brief, precise, and concrete. There should be no space for misunderstanding the concepts and procedures provided.
  6. Distinguish the parts: A theoretical framework not alienate into chapters. Instead, each element that composes it (background, academic and legal bases, variables)  separate from the respective title.

Example of the Theoretical framework

A theoretical framework on the topic of Sensitizing students in the first stage of school about what social values ​​are and their importance to reduce bullying could structure as follows and address the following topics:

  • Research past material on social values, bullying, and comparable measures to prevent bullying at school.
  • Theoretical foundations: based on the data gathered, we can deduce:
  • For example, the research conduct with students. Aged 7 to 12 in three schools in Mexico City as the backdrop and delimitation.
  • In the context of school, what the essential social values?
  • What are the opinions of experts on the topic develop?
  • What are the best theories and methodologies for doing the research?

Key concepts: values, axiology, social values, bullying, education, respect, tolerance, and disrespect.

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